This article was written by UC Davis ARE PhD students Yao Ma and Zhiran Qin. It is the fifth of six excellent articles written by students in my ARE 231 class this fall. As one of the most nutritious and storable fruits, apples are the most consumed fruit in both the US and China. Back in the early 17th century, apples were brought by European colonists and travelers from Central Asia to America and East Asia. Its cultivation expanded to five continents in the following centuries.